Veterinarians can help reduce antimicrobial resistance by taking a measured approach and reducing the use of antimicrobials, especially systemic antimicrobials.
December 23, 2020|
DVM, MS, DACVD
dr. Koch is a professor of dermatology at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. She obtained her DVM degree at the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. She also received a master's degree in veterinary dermatology from the University of Minnesota, where she completed her residency in veterinary dermatology. She is the authorDog and Cat Medicine Handbook of Dermatologyas well as many scientific articles and book chapters. She is a scientific advisor and editor of several magazines and has presented at many domestic and international conferences. Her professional interests include allergies, ear disorders, autoimmune diseases, multidrug-resistant infections, and equine dermatology.
Updated April 2022
Read articles written by Sandra Koch
Canine superficial pyoderma, also calledbactericicle folliculitis, is one of the most common problems faced by veterinarians, and the increasing prevalence of staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance represents a new challenge for treatment. Failure to recognize staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance often results in ineffective empiric therapeutic choices and prolonged clinical illness. In addition, there are concerns about the possible transfer of antimicrobial-resistant strains between animals and humans.
The appearance of antimicrobial resistance requires veterinarians to change their approach to the treatment of bacterial skin infections, especially with regard to the application and selection of systemic antimicrobials. Specific antimicrobial guidelines and clinical consensus on the treatment of bacterial skin infections have been developed by the International Society for Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals (ISCAID,iscaid.org) en de World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD,wavd.org) to help veterinarians adequately diagnose and treat pyoderma, using judicious antimicrobial therapy to prevent bacterial resistance.1,2To successfully treat pyoderma in dogs, it is important to recognize the clinical signs, confirm infection, and identify and treat any underlying causes to prevent recurrence of pyoderma.
Bacteria that cause superficial pyoderma
Staphylococcus pseudintermediusis the most common cause of superficial pyoderma in dogs. Other less commonly identified gram-positive bacteria includeStaphylococcus schleiferi,Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus epidermitis, ustreptococcuskind. Gram-negative bacteria such asPseudomonas aeruginosaUCorynebacteriespecies are rarely identified.1
Antimicrobial resistance occurs when bacteria can survive in the presence of antimicrobial agents intended to kill them or stop their growth. One of the main factors leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is the use and misuse of antimicrobial therapy. Therefore, reducing the overall use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine, especially systemic antimicrobials, can help reduce antimicrobial resistance.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are bacteria that show resistance to at least 3 classes of antimicrobials in vitro. Conditionmethicillin-resistant staphylococcus(IAS) refers to anyStaphylococcusspecies resistant to oxacillin; that is, it shows in vitro resistance to everythingB-lactam antimicrobials, including all cephalosporins, penicillins (including potentiated amoxicillin) and carbapenem antimicrobials. When MRS shows resistance to at least 2 additional antimicrobial classes, it is called MDR.
Clinical signs of superficial pyoderma in dogs usually include erythematous papules and pustules (PICTURE 1), which are usually associated with hair follicles. Pustules are quite short-lived and are not always recognized during examination. Successive scaling, crusting and epidermal collars (LIK2) are often present. Multifocal areas with hypotrichotic patches or patches of alopecia (moth-eaten alopecia;LIK3) can also be seen, usually in short-haired breeds. Clinical signs cannot differentiate between susceptible and resistant infections.
Figure 1. Papules and pustules on the groin and medial part of the dog's thighs.
Figure 2. Epidermal collars on the ventral abdomen of a dog.
Figure 3. Moth-eaten alopecia on the dog's back.
The first step in the proper treatment of superficial pyoderma is to confirm the diagnosis. Diagnosis includes recognition of typical clinical signs, exclusion of other similar conditions, and confirmation by skin cytology, plus or minus bacterial culture, and sensitivity testing.3This approach helps prevent the inappropriate use of antimicrobial therapy for skin diseases unrelated to pyoderma.
Other causes of folliculitis and pustular disease should be considered, including demodicosis, dermatophytosis, sterile pustular disease such as pemphigus foliaceus (LIK4), and sterile neutrophilic or eosinophilic pustulosis. Appropriate diagnostic tests such as skin scrapings, trichogram, fungal culture and skin biopsy should be performed to rule out these conditions.
Figure 4. Generalized pemphigus foliaceus mimicking superficial pyoderma in a dog.
Skin cytology is the main diagnostic test for canine pyoderma; however, it is still underutilized. Before the use of antimicrobial drugs, the diagnosis of superficial pyoderma should be supported by cytological findings showing coccoid bacteria, often associated with inflammatory cells (usually degenerated neutrophils) and, if present, bacterial phagocytosis (LIK5). Cytology is also very important for the identification of co-infection with other microorganisms such asMalassezia pachydermatisand less often rod-shaped bacteria.
Figure 5. Skin cytology of a dog with superficial pyoderma showing degenerated neutrophils and intracellular (blue arrow) and extracellular (orange arrow) cocci.
Bacterial culture and susceptibility testing
Bacterial culture and sensitivity testing is a very important diagnostic tool for identifying the bacteria involved and selecting appropriate antimicrobial therapy (FRAME 1), especially when considering systemic antibiotics. The need for this test has increased with the emergence of MDR infections in veterinary medicine. Ideally, samples should be taken from the pustules. If there are no pustules, samples can be taken from the exudate under the scab, the epidermal collars and, if necessary, from the papules (by puncturing the papules with a 22-gauge needle). There is currently no evidence that the use of antimicrobial drugs affects the isolation of the causative bacteria of superficial pyoderma in dogs; therefore, specimens for culture can be collected when indicated, regardless of antimicrobial use.
BOX 1. When to perform bacterial culture and susceptibility testing
- History of recurrent pyoderma
- History of any use of antimicrobial drugs in the past 6 months
- History of multiple courses of systemic antimicrobial therapy
- History of poor response to previous or current systemic antimicrobial therapy
- History of infections resistant to multiple drugs or methicillin
- Development of new skin lesions 2 weeks or more after initiation of systemic antimicrobials
- Presence of residual skin lesions and cytological evidence of bacteria after 6 weeks of systemic antimicrobial use
- Identification of intracellular rods on cytology without suspicion of contamination
Therapy of superficial pyoderma
There is no gold standard or one-size-fits-all treatment method. Treatment must be adapted to each patient. The type of therapy chosen should be based on the nature of the disease, the severity and extent of the lesions, co-morbidities, any other drugs used, the owner's ability to apply topical and systemic therapy and adherence to therapy, and the patient's financial situation. owner. , with any known or expected antimicrobial resistance.
Local antimicrobial therapy
Topical antimicrobial therapy can be of great benefit in the treatment of superficial pyoderma in dogs, and its value has increased with the emergence of bacterial resistance (FRAME 2). Topical therapy is usually safer and achieves a higher concentration in the skin compared to systemic antimicrobials.Topical therapy should always be recommended in cases of superficial pyoderma before systemic therapy is considered to avoid unnecessary use of systemic antimicrobials.Topical therapy alone can be effective, especially in cases of mild to moderate infection (LIK6), but it can also help to resolve lesions more quickly and shorten the duration of systemic antimicrobial administration. The WAVD Clinical Consensus Guidelines state that topical antibacterial therapy with proven antistaphylococcal efficacy is the recommended treatment for any superficial pyoderma involving MDR or MRS, particularly those with localized lesions.2
BOX 2. Benefits of topical therapy for superficial pyoderma in dogs
- Limited to the treated organ
- High concentration on the skin
- Fewer side effects
- Faster resolution of the infection
- Reduced systemic use or duration of antimicrobial drugs
Shampoos, foams, lotions, wipes, sprays, and rinses containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine (often used by the author), benzoyl peroxide, ethyl lactate, hydroxyl acids (ie, acetic acid, lactic acid, and malic acid) may be used. and hypochloric acid 1 to 3 times weekly to daily to resolve local and generalized lesions as well as maintenance to prevent recurrence of infection. For the optimal effect of antimicrobial shampoos, a reaction time of at least 5 to 10 minutes is important. These products can also be used for maintenance to prevent infection in cases of recurrent pyoderma.
Figure 6. (A) Dog with superficial pyoderma along the dorsum before topical therapy with chlorhexidine shampoo and foam.
Figure 6. (B) The same dog with complete resolution of pyoderma after topical therapy.
Ointments, creams, gels, and sprays containing gentamicin, bacitracin, neosporin, silver sulfadiazine, hydroxylic acid, or fusidic acid (not available in the United States) can be used 2 to 3 times daily with baths or on non-bath days. These topical antibiotic therapies should be used until the skin infection is completely gone.
Mupirocin, a carboxylic acid ointment, is very effective against MRS skin infections and can be used for topical treatment; however, the author uses mupirocin only in resistant cases, when other topical drugs are ineffective or show in vitro resistance, since it is the main topical antimicrobial used to treat methicillin resistanceS aureus(MRSA) in humans. Topical fluoroquinolones should not be used empirically according to the author and should also be storedfor more resistant cases when other topical agents are ineffective.
Skin infections associated with significant inflammation may benefit from short, limited courses of topical agents containing glucocorticoids, such as hydrocortisone, betamethasone, mometasone, or triamcinolone; however, caution should be exercised with these products because chronic use of topical glucocorticoids may cause skin side effects (eg, atrophic skin, wounds).
It is very important to educate pet owners about the proper application of topical therapy and the proper schedule for the recommended duration.
Systemic antimicrobial therapy
When properly selected, systemic antimicrobial therapy is very effective in cases of superficial pyoderma in dogs. The basic principles of successful systemic antimicrobial therapy include proper selection of antimicrobial agents, determination of the effective dose, and duration of treatment long enough to ensure complete resolution of the infection. The choice of systemic antimicrobials can be empirical in first cases of pyoderma that do not recur and in dogs that have not been exposed to multiple cycles of systemic antimicrobials. Otherwise, antimicrobial selection should always be based on culture and susceptibility testing results. When a systemic antibiotic is required, choosing an antibiotic with the narrowest possible spectrum of action will reduce the selection of resistant organisms.4
The WAVD Clinical Consensus Guidelines state that empiric drug selection for systemic therapy is always contraindicated when multidrug-resistant infection is suspected based on historical factors, due to the high prevalence of multidrug resistance within these strains.2The ISCAID guidelines, last updated in 2014, list 3 levels of antimicrobials and their recommended use for superficial pyoderma in dogs.1Clinical use by veterinary dermatologists may deviate from these guidelines. The author is based on experience and other publications5-7changes ISCAID levels for stricter antimicrobial stewardship (BOX 3).
Box 3 Selection of systemic antimicrobials for canine pyodermaA
First layer (empirical usage)
- First generation cephalosporins (eg cephalexin)
- Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid
- Potentiated sulfonamides
Second level (culture)
- Third generation cephalosporins (eg cefpodoxime, cefovecin)
- Aminoglikozidi (npr. gentamicin, amikacin)
Third level (culture)
- Fluoroquinolones (bijv. enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, difloxacin, orbifloxacin, pradofloxacin)
- Do not use ciprofloxacin (poor bioavailability in dogs)
Level Four (Avoid Use)
AAuthor modified Hillier A, Lloyd DH, Weese JS et al Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of superficial bacterial folliculitis in dogs (Antimicrobial Guidelines Task Force of the International Society for Infectious Diseases of Pets).Vet Dermatol2014;25(3):163-175.
First-line antimicrobial agentswhich can be used empirically (without culture and susceptibility testing in dogs with no or infrequent exposure to antimicrobials) for cases of superficial pyoderma. Many dermatologists first choose cephalexin or cefadroxil for empiric treatment of superficial pyoderma, and amoxicillin clavulanate is usually the second choice. Potentiated sulfonamides are often effective againstS pseudintermedius; however, they can have many side effects (eg, hypothyroidism, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, hypersensitivity reaction in certain breeds), especially if given over a long period of time.
Antimicrobial agents of the second ordershould be used only if culture and sensitivity results indicate that the bacterial isolate is not susceptible to any of the first-line antimicrobials or if the patient has adverse reactions to first-line antimicrobials. Class II antimicrobials should always be used based on appropriate in vitro susceptibility testing. The author usually considers clindamycin or doxycycline to be the second-line antimicrobials of choice for MDR or MRS cases, based on their efficacy in treating these infections and their safety profile.
ISCAID guidelines include clindamycin and lincomycin in the first tier of antimicrobials.1The author prefers to reserve these drugs for second-line administration based on culture and susceptibility testing when other choices, such as cephalosporins, are not an option. Several published reports, including that of dogs,6recommend the use of clindamycin based on culture and sensitivity results only because of a phenomenon called MLSB (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B) associated with inducible cross-resistance between macrolides. Therefore, when considering the use of clindamycin, it is important to confirm that all macrolides tested show in vitro sensitivity.
Chloramphenicol, rifampin, and aminoglycosides are often the last option for MDR staphylococcal infections, usually because of the more serious potential side effects. Chloramphenicol and rifampin can be used safely in most dogs; however, careful monitoring is required for possible aplastic anemia and hepatotoxicity. Historically, rifampicin has been used in combination with other antimicrobials (eg, doxycycline) because of concerns about the rapid development of resistance; however, polyantimicrobial systemic therapy should be avoided due to the possibility of increased resistance. In addition, a recent study showed that rifampicin, used as monotherapy, was effective in nearly 72% of dogs with methicillin-resistant MDR dogs.Staphylococcuspyoderma;8however, patients should be carefully monitored for resistance during treatment, especially if several months of treatment are required.
The author considers cefovecin and cefpodoxime to be antimicrobial drugs of the second class because they are cephalosporins of the third generation, with a wider spectrum than other cephalosporins such as cephalexin and cefadroxil.7In addition, the extended spectrumBlactamaza (ESBL)Escherichia colihas been reported in dogs, and third-generation cephalosporins are considered risk factors for MRSA- and ESBL-related infectionsE coliin people. It is important to remember that none of the cephalosporins should be used to treat MRS infections that are resistant to these antimicrobials.
Third class antimicrobials(fluoroquinolones) should be used only when sensitivity has been proven in vitro, and antimicrobials of the first and second class are ineffective.7The author considers these antimicrobials to be the last options for the treatment of pyoderma in dogs, unless they must be selected for patient safety. Ciprofloxacin should not be used due to reported malabsorption and bioavailability in dogs.
Level four antimicrobialsit must not be used in veterinary medicine, especially in relation to routine cases of superficial pyoderma. They must be reservedfor the treatment of severe MRSA infections in humans.
General guidelines for systemic use of antimicrobial drugs
The use of the correct dose, frequency and duration of antimicrobial agents is crucial for a successful outcome in the treatment of infection. Antimicrobials that are given more often than once a day (eg, cephalexin, clindamycin) aretime dependent. To be effective, their concentration at the site of infection must exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bacterium, ideally for the duration of the application interval, but at least 75% of that time is acceptable. Time-dependent antimicrobials should not be administered less frequently than the recommended interval, and increasing the dose does not necessarily increase efficacy.
Antimicrobials that are given only once a day (eg enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin) aredepending on the dose.Fromimportant considerations when using these antimicrobial agentsis how much their concentration at the site of infection is above the bacterial MIC. For these antimicrobials, increasing the dose increases efficacy, but increasing the frequency of administration does not.
Subtherapeutic doses of systemic antimicrobials, including pulse therapy protocols, are currently strongly discouraged because they are likely to promote antimicrobial resistance.
Recommended doses of systemic drugs for superficial pyoderma in dogs are published in ISCAID guidelines1and elsewhere.
Duration of treatment, prevention and control of superficial pyoderma in dogs
The typical course of treatment for superficial pyoderma is 3 to 4 weeks, but it may take longer. Currently, veterinary dermatologists recommend treating superficial pyoderma for up to 1 week after complete clinical resolution of the infection. Patients with pyoderma should always be re-examined by a veterinarian, who should not rely solely on the owner's perception to determine whether the bacterial infection has cleared. To avoid frequent recurrence of superficial pyoderma, it is crucial to try to treat the underlying primary disease (eg, follow-up examinations are very important to assess the response to therapy and decide when to stop antimicrobial use).LIK7 shows the author's monitoring and treatment protocol.
Figure 7. Treatment protocol for superficial pyoderma in dogs.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that autogenous bacterins and commercial bacterial antigens (eg, Staphage Lysate [Delmont Laboratories,delmontlabs. s] UPropionibacterium acnes[ImmunoRegulin; Neogene knowsdierenveiligheid.neogen.com]) can be used to boost immunity against the above bacteria and prevent or control pyoderma.
Owner adherence to the recommended treatment regimen is critical to treatment success and prevention of bacterial resistance. Educating customers about pyoderma and treating their pets has been shown to improve compliance. In addition, owners should be educated about the need to avoid or minimize the systemic use of antimicrobials in order to be part of the solution in the global fight against antimicrobial resistance.
1. Hillier A, Lloyd DH, Weese JS et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of superficial bacterial folliculitis in dogs (Antimicrobial Guidelines Task Force of the International Society for Infectious Diseases of Pets).Vet Dermatol2014;25(3):163-175.
2. Morris DO, Loeffler A, Davis MF et al. Recommendations for the approach to methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections in small animals: diagnosis, therapeutic considerations and preventive measures: World Association of Veterinary Dermatology consensus clinical guidelines.Vet Dermatol2017;28(3):304-e69. doi: 10.1111/vde.12444
3. Beco L, Guaguère E, Méndez CL et al. Proposed guidelines for the use of systemic antimicrobials in bacterial skin infections (2): antimicrobial selection, treatment regimens, and adherence.Veterinary records
4. Battersby I. Responsible use of antibiotics in pets.In practice2014;36(3):106-118.
5. Guardabassi L, Houser GA, Frank LA, et al. Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial drugs in dogs and cats. In: Guardabassi L, Jensen LB, Kruse H, editors.Guide to the use of antimicrobial drugs in animals. Oxford, VK: Blackwell; 2008: 183-206.
6. Gold RM, Lawhon SD. Frequency of inducible resistance to clindamycin inStaphylococcus pseudintermediusfrom dogs.J Clin Microbiol2013;51(12):4196-4199.doi:10.1128/JCM.02251-13
7. British Veterinary Association. Responsible use of antibiotics in veterinary practice.bsava.com/Resources/Veterinary-resources/Position-statements/Responsible-use-of-antibacterials. Accessed November 2020.
8. De Lucia M, Bardagi M, Fabbri E, et al. Rifampicin treatment of canine pyoderma caused by multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant staphylococcus: a retrospective study of 32 cases.Vet Dermatol2017;28(2):171-e36.
What antibiotics treat superficial pyoderma in dogs? ›
What antibiotics can be used empirically to treat superficial pyoderma? Only first line antibiotics should be used empirically. These include amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cefadroxil, lincomycin, and clindamycin.What is the best antibiotic for pyoderma in dogs? ›
- Potentiated sulfonamides.
- Beta—lactamase-resistant penicillins.
The predominant pathogen that causes superficial pyoderma is Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (1) (formerly S. intermedius), a commensal bacterium that resides on the mucosal and skin surfaces of dogs (4,5). These resident strains may act as opportunistic pathogens and cause infection, primarily involving the skin.Can older dogs get puppy pyoderma? ›
Pyoderma is a relatively common disorder in dogs and can occur at any age. Symptoms are similar to many other skin disorders and those most common are: Blood or pus on skin. Crusting.Which class of antibiotics is usually the first choice to treat pyoderma? ›
Many dermatologists first select cephalexin or cefadroxil for empiric treatment of superficial pyoderma, with the second choice typically being amoxicillin clavulanate.What is the drug of choice for pyoderma? ›
Corticosteroids. The most common treatment are daily doses of corticosteroids. These drugs may be applied to the skin, injected into the wound or taken by mouth (prednisone). Using corticosteroids for a long time or in high doses may cause serious side effects.What do vets prescribe for pyoderma? ›
Treatment of Pyoderma in Dogs
Antibiotics: Commonly used oral antibiotics include cephalexin, Simplicef, Clavamox, and clindamycin. Cefovecin (brand name, Convenia®)is an injectable antibiotic that is administered by a veterinarian and lasts for two weeks.
Because pyoderma gangrenosum can be made worse by cuts to the skin, surgery to remove dead tissue is not usually considered a good treatment option. Trauma to the skin may worsen existing ulcers or trigger new ones. If the ulcers on your skin are large and need help with healing, your doctor might suggest a skin graft.Can doxycycline treat pyoderma? ›
Doxycycline effective for successful treatment of pyoderma vegetans, reveals case report. Alabama: A recent study, published in JAAD Case Reports describes the case of pyoderma vegetans (PDV) in an elderly man without known inflammatory bowel disease who responded to doxycycline with exceptional results.How do you get rid of superficial pyoderma? ›
The typical treatment for pyoderma is antibiotic therapy for a minimum of three to four weeks. In chronic or recurrent cases, it is important to perform a skin culture and antibiotic sensitivity test to ensure that the proper antibiotic is used. Antibiotics in these cases may be needed for 8 to 12 weeks.
What triggers pyoderma? ›
Causes of pyoderma gangrenosum
The cause of pyoderma gangrenosum is often not known. It may be related to overactivity of the immune system. Sometimes it may be caused by an injury or minor skin damage such as a needle prick, a biopsy or an insect bite. It can also be linked to a disease or illness.
Bacterial and fungal cultures may also be taken. The most common causes of recurrent bacterial pyoderma include failure to treat underlying causes, use of glucocorticoid drugs, and inappropriate treatment with prescribed antibiotic medications.Why does my dog keep getting pyoderma? ›
Skin irritation caused by fleas, ticks, yeast or fungal infections, hormonal imbalances, genetics, and more can all increase the risk of pyoderma for your dog.What do you feed a dog with pyoderma? ›
Feeding your dog a healthy, vet-approved diet is often an effective way to prevent and treat pyoderma. Your dog could also be allergic to any ingredient in her food. To confirm or rule this out, your vet may recommend a hydrolyzed dog food or one with novel protein to see if the skin condition improves.What is the difference between deep and superficial pyoderma? ›
Bacterial pyodermas limited to the epidermis and hair follicles are referred to as superficial, whereas those that involve the dermis, deep dermis, or cause furunculosis are referred to as deep. Etiologic classification refers to the pathogenic organism involved in the infection (eg, staphylococci, streptococci, etc).What shampoo is good for dogs with pyoderma? ›
Pyoderm is a shampoo containing chlorhexidine and is recommended as a hygiene product to support the treatment of (bacterial and fungal) skin infections in dogs and cats.What bacteria is often associated with pyoderma? ›
Most common organism usually isolated in pyoderma is Staphyloccus aureus, which may be either methicilllin-sensitive (MSSA) or methicilllin-resistant (MRSA). MRSA is an important health care associated pathogen. Many of these isolates are becoming multidrug resistant.Should you bathe a dog with pyoderma? ›
Griffin recommends bathing the pet frequently-every other day is preferred though some cases do respond to twice-weekly bathing, especially if topical antiseptic sprays are used between baths. Two times a week is generally effective in preventing recurrent pyoderma and bacterial overgrowth.Does apple cider vinegar help with pyoderma? ›
Using apple cider vinegar as an antibacterial to cure pyoderma is a great choice and results will be shown immediately in 3 or 4 days. Simply use a combination of 50/50 apple cider vinegar and filtered water as an alternative method to vaccination.What are the three types of pyoderma? ›
Three broad classifications of pyoderma exist, based on the depth of skin and follicle involvement: surface pyoderma, superficial pyoderma, and deep pyoderma. Surface pyoderma occurs when bacteria proliferate on the surface of the skin and incite an inflammatory response, without invading the skin.
What is the best antibiotic for skin infection in dogs? ›
Staphylococcal Infection (staph infection)
This type of infection may impact a dog's skin or upper respiratory tract, and can be treated using oral antibiotics such as cephalexin, erythromycin or clindamycin. Antibiotic ointments and shampoos can also work.
Bacitracin is a safe and effective antibiotic for treating bacterial infections in dogs, particularly after surgery. Its use has been shown to reduce the risk of infections and positive bacteria cultures.How do you treat recurrent pyoderma in dogs? ›
Immunomodulatory therapy using adjunctive, killed bacterial preparations or non-bacterial immunostimulants is attempted in dogs with confirmed or suspected defects of the immune system or in dogs with idiopathic recurrent pyoderma. Extended regimens of antibiotic therapy are a last resort.Can food cause pyoderma in dogs? ›
Dogs with ingredient sensitivities or food allergies may be at risk for developing a pyoderma after eating something that causes a reaction. If your vet suspects a food allergy, they will need to treat the skin infection and then they may recommend feeding your dog a therapeutic food to see if the skin problem abates.What are the stages of pyoderma? ›
There are two stages of the disease: the active, ulcerative stage and the wound healing stage (Gameiro et al, 2015). Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare immune-related chronic ulcerating skin condition with a predilection for the lower limbs.What is the most common form of pyoderma in dogs? ›
The most common form of pyoderma in dogs is superficial bacterial folliculitis, which is also the primary reason for systemic antimicrobial use in small animal practice.What is the systemic treatment for pyoderma? ›
Systemic therapies include corticosteroids, cyclosporine, [22, 23, 24] mycophenolate mofetil, [25, 26, 27] azathioprine, dapsone, tacrolimus, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, thalidomide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors (eg, thalidomide, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, clofazimine ), and nicotine.What is superficial bacterial pyoderma in dogs? ›
Pyoderma literally means “pus in the skin.” It can be caused by infection, inflammation, or cancer and is common in dogs. Most cases of pyoderma are caused by bacterial infections. Most of these are superficial and secondary to a variety of other conditions, such as allergies or parasites.What is the spray for pyoderma in dogs? ›
PYOclean® Spray is an innovative and patented purifying care to help manage localized cutaneous microbiota imbalances (superficial pyoderma and Malassezia dermatitis).What is spreading superficial pyoderma? ›
Superficial spreading pyoderma: characterised by an absence of pustules and large, spreading epidermal collarettes with an erythematous, moist leading edge. This can result in large areas of erythema and exfoliation.
Does pyoderma go away on its own dog? ›
Some cases of Puppy Pyoderma will resolve on their own; however, others require treatment. Treatment can range from using chlorhexidine solution to bathe the area, which is sufficient in mild cases, to using antibiotic tablets in more persistent cases. What causes puppy pyoderma?Do I need to take my dog to the vet for pyoderma? ›
While it is admirable to opt for natural products and holistic treatments for other conditions or problems in dogs, Pyoderma needs to be treated by a licensed veterinarian.Does cephalexin treat superficial pyoderma? ›
Cephalexin, a first-generation bactericidal cephalospo- rin, is considered to be the first-choice anti- biotic in the treatment of superficial pyoderma because it is both extremely effec- tive (Frank and Kunkle 1993, Guague`re and others 1998) and very safe, with very low incidence of adverse effects (Papich 1984, ...How do you get rid of superficial bacterial folliculitis in dogs? ›
Topical therapy most often involves the use of antimicrobial shampoos, whereas systemic therapy usually includes oral antibiotic medications. In the case of bacterial folliculitis, long-term use of both topical and systemic antimicrobials is typically required (three to twelve weeks).What antibiotics are used for skin infections in dogs? ›
Staphylococcal Infection (staph infection)
This type of infection may impact a dog's skin or upper respiratory tract, and can be treated using oral antibiotics such as cephalexin, erythromycin or clindamycin. Antibiotic ointments and shampoos can also work.
What is cephalexin? Cephalexin (brand names Rilexine®, Keflex®, Vetolexin®) is an oral antibiotic that is used to treat pyoderma and other bacterial skin infections in dogs and is used off-label or extra-label in cats, horses, ferrets, reptiles, and birds to treat pyoderma and some other types of skin infections.What is the best antibiotic for superficial skin infection? ›
Typical choices would be penicillin, or either dicloxacillin or cephalexin, which adds coverage for “regular” or methicillin-susceptible Staph, though some use clindamycin.Do dogs need antibiotics for pyoderma? ›
Most cases of pyoderma resolve with oral antibiotics and/or topical therapy. Chronic or recurrent cases may require additional testing to determine if there is an underlying condition contributing to the bacterial skin infection. Routine bathing with medicated shampoos can minimize recurrences.How do you treat antibiotic resistant folliculitis? ›
Methicillin-resistant organisms are becoming more common, and treatment may require clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, minocycline, or linezolid. Deep folliculitis is best approached with warm compresses, followed by incision and drainage once a conical pustular head develops.How do you get rid of superficial bacterial folliculitis? ›
Lifestyle and home remedies
- Apply a warm, moist washcloth. ...
- Apply a nonprescription antibiotic. ...
- Apply a soothing lotion or cream. ...
- Clean the affected skin. ...
- Protect the skin.
What is the best antibiotic for folliculitis in dogs? ›
The increasing frequency of multidrug resistance complicates the selection of antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial agents that were once rarely used in cases of canine SBF, such as amikacin, rifampicin and chloramphenicol, are becoming the drugs of choice, based on bacterial culture and susceptibility testing.How long does it take for antibiotics to clear up a dog's skin infection? ›
Typically, a minimum of three weeks of oral or injectable antibiotic therapy is required. If the proper antibiotic is chosen to kill the bacterial infection, the signs will subside within a week. However, if the antibiotic is stopped, these infections will flare up again and the results may be worse than first noticed.Can doxycycline treat skin infections in dogs? ›
Doxycycline is commonly prescribed because it treats a variety of infections and is generally well-tolerated by both cats and dogs. It may be prescribed for respiratory tract infections, skin/dental infections, kennel cough, tick-borne diseases, and heartworm disease.